I wish to recognize and extend my sincere personal thanks to a few people who made possible this writing:

To my wife, Maria, for her encouragement and support to write such a report so that our children and others will know where we came from and how we lived.

To my cousin, George Bellio, who granted me many hours of interviews and taping facts and events, and also reviewing my material. His help in completing what I recalled about these times was invaluable.

To my children, Constance, Karen, Michael and Jeffrey, and to my brother and sister-in-law, John and Carole, who reviewed the drafts and final manuscript to strengthen sentence structure and grammar.  George Bellio, my bother, John, and my sister-in-law, Carole as well as my immediate family, also provided me with their determined moral support during the course of this writing.

To my son-in-laws Steven Ross and James Pappas, and my daughter-in-laws Barbara and Jacqueline for their help in reviewing my drafts and urging me to complete this project.

To Kimberly Farrell who converted all pictures and maps to digital images and assisted with formatting the text.

To Alphalogic Systems, Inc. of Oregon, Ohio, and my son Jeffrey for assisting me with technical knowledge, employee time, and the use of electronic equipment.

To Teta Prosha Chicovska, Teta Fana Gosheva, my sister, Elefteria, my cousins, Nick Bellio, Kouzo Shkemboff, Dita Souliova, and Sophie Timofeeva; along with many others too numerous to mention.

To all these people, my sincere thanks.

Pando E. Pappas (Popoff)
Toledo, Ohio, USA

In Their Sunday Best

In their Sunday best taken in June 1930: (L to R) – Chris Chicovski, his mother Teta Prosha (Popova) Chicovska,my mother Dota (Boshkova) Popova holding my sister Eleftheria, my father Elia Popoff (Pappas) holding Yorgi Bellioff, I, standing between my father and Tetko Bouri Shkemboff (Skembos), and Teta Tana (Popova) Shkembova